A standard language (also standard dialect or standardized dialect) is a language variety used by a group of people in their public discourse.[1] Alternatively, varieties become standard by undergoing a process of standardization, during which it is organized for description in grammars and dictionaries and encoded in such reference works.[1] Typically, varieties that become standardized are the local dialects spoken in the centers of commerce and government, where a need arises for a variety that will serve more than local needs.

A standard written language is sometimes termed by the German word Schriftsprache.

1 Definition and characteristics
2 List of standard languages and regulators
3 Examples
4 See also
5 References
6 Bibliography

[edit] Definition and characteristics

The creation of a prescriptive standard language, derives from the national (cultural, political, social) cohesion requiring an agreed, standardized tongue. Generally, standard languages usually are established upon:

A recognized dictionary (standardized spelling and vocabulary)
A recognized grammar
A standard pronunciation (educated speech)
A linguistic institution defining usage norms, e.g. Académie française, the Royal Spanish Academy
Constitutional (legal) status
Effective public use (court, legislature, schools)
A literary canon

[edit] List of standard languages and regulators
Further information: List of language regulators
language standard register regulator non-standard dialects
Chinese Standard Chinese National Languages Committee in China, Taiwan and Singapore Chinese dialects
Malay Standard Malay(Bahasa Baku, includes Bahasa Malaysia, Bahasa Indonesia and Bahasa Melayu) Malay dialects
English Standard English none English dialects
Hindustani (Hindustani) Standard Hindi, Urdu Central Hindi Directorate, National Language Authority of Pakistan Hindi dialects
Arabic Standard Arabic the Qur'an, several Arabic Academies Arabic dialects
Dutch Standard Dutch Dutch Language Union, Nederlandse Taalunie Dutch dialects
Afrikaans Standard Afrikaans Language commission, Die Taalkommissie Afrikaans dialects
Spanish Standard Spanish Real Academia Española, Association of Spanish Language Academies Spanish dialects
Portuguese Standard Portuguese International Portuguese Language Institute, Community of Portuguese Language Countries Portuguese dialects
German Standard German, Swiss Standard German Rat für deutsche Rechtschreibung German dialects
French Standard French Académie française, Office québécois de la langue française, Council for the Development of French in Louisiana French dialects
Norwegian Nynorsk, Bokmål Norwegian Language Council Norwegian dialects
Swedish Standard Swedish Swedish Language Council, Svenska språkbyrån Swedish dialects
Modern Greek Standard Modern Greek official introduction under Constantine Karamanlis in 1976 Modern Greek dialects
[edit] Examples
This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. Please improve this section if you can. The talk page may contain suggestions. (January 2011)

Arabic comprises many varieties (many mutually unintelligible[citation needed]), that are considered a single language, because the standard Arabic register, Modern Standard Arabic, is generally intelligible to all speakers. It is based upon modified Classical Arabic, the language of the Qur'an, the contemporary refined vernacular of Muhammad’s time, the 7th century CE.

The Chinese language (漢語) comprises a wide varieties of spoken forms, which are known as fangyan (方言, “regional speech”). The major spoken variants are (i) Mandarin, (ii) Wu, (iii) Cantonese, and (iv) Min. These spoken variants are not mutually intelligible, thus why the English linguistic usage “dialect” is inaccurate, given it also denotes mutual intelligibility. Standard Chinese is based on the Beijing dialect of Mandarin, and is the official language of the People's Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan), and Republic of Singapore. It is called Putonghua (普通话, “common speech”) in the PRC, Guoyu (國語, “national language”) in Taiwan, and Huayu (华语, “Chinese language”) in Singapore.

The Chinese language also enjoys official status in Hong Kong (together with English) and in Macau (together with Portuguese). However, Standard Chinese is not widely spoken in these territories. The majority of the population speaks, and often writes, Cantonese.

In British English, the standard, known as Standard English (SE) is historically based on the language of the medieval English court of Chancery.[2] The late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries saw the establishment of this standard as the norm of "polite" society, that is to say of the upper classes.[3] The spoken standard has come to be seen as a mark of good education and social prestige.[4] Although often associated with the RP accent, SE can be spoken with any accent.[5]

The dialects of American English vary throughout the US, but the General American accent the unofficial standard language for being accentless; it is based on Midwestern English, distributed within an isogloss area encompassing the states of Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Iowa, and to some extent Nebraska.[citation needed]
Language distribution: The standard languages of Norway by municipality.

The basic structure and words of standard Finnish (yleiskieli) are mostly based upon the dialects of Western Finland, because Mikael Agricola, who codified the written language in the sixteenth century, was from Turku, the regional centre of the time. Finnish was developed to integrate all of the nation’s dialects, and so yield a logical language for proper written communication. One aim was national unification, in accordance to the nationalistic principle; the second aim was linguistic regularity and consistency, even if contradicting general colloquial usage, e.g. in Standard Finnish, ruoka becomes ruoan, and the pronunciation is ruuan.

Parisian French is the standard in French literature.

Standard German was developed for several centuries, during which time writers tried to write in a way intelligible to the greatest number of readers and speakers, thus, until about 1800, Standard German was mostly a written language. In that time, northern Germany spoke Low German dialects much different from Standard German. Later, the Northern pronunciation of written German became considered as the universal standard; in Hanover, because of that adoption, the local dialect disappeared.

Two standardized registers of the Hindustani language have legal status India: Standard Hindi (one of 23 co-official national languages) and Urdu (Pakistan’s official tongue), resultantly, Hindustani often called “Hindi-Urdu”.

Standard Italian derives from the city speech of Florence and the regional speech of Tuscany: the Florentine influence upon early Italian literature (e.g. Divine Comedy) established that dialect as base for the standard language of Italy.

In Norwegian there are two parallel standard languages: (i) Bokmål (partly derived from the local pronunciation of Danish, when Denmark ruled Norway), (ii) Nynorsk (comparatively derived from Norwegian dialects).

Portuguese has two official written standards, (i) Brazilian Portuguese (used chiefly in Brazil) and (ii) European Portuguese (used in Portugal and Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, and São Tomé and Príncipe). The written standards slightly differ in spelling and vocabulary, and are legally regulated. Unlike the written language, however, there is no spoken-Portuguese official standard, but the European Portuguese reference pronunciation is the educated speech of Lisbon.

In Brazil, actors and journalists usually adopt an unofficial, but de facto, spoken standard Portuguese, originally derived from the middle-class dialect of Rio de Janeiro, but that now comprehends educated urban pronunciations from the different speech communities in the southeast. In that standard, represents the phoneme /s/ when it appears at the end of a syllable (whereas in Rio de Janeiro this represents /ʃ/) the rhotic consonant spelled is pronounced [x] in the same situation (whereas in São Paulo this is usually an alveolar trill). European and African dialects have differing realizations of /ʁ/ than Brazilian dialects, with the former using [ʁ] and [r] and the latter using [x], [h], or [χ].[6] Between vowels, represents /ɾ/ for most dialects.

In Spain, Standard Spanish is based upon the speech of educated speakers from Castile and León. In Argentina and Uruguay the Spanish standard is based on the local dialects of Buenos Aires and Montevideo. This is known as Rioplatense Spanish (“River Plate Spanish”), distinguishable, from other standard Spanishes, by the greater use of the voseo.

The Standard form of Modern Greek is based on the Southern dialects; these dialects are spoken mainly in the Peloponnese, the Ionian Islands, Attica, Crete and the Cyclades.[7] However the Northerners call this dialect, and the Standard form, 'Atheneika' which means 'the Athens dialect'. This form is also official in Cyprus, where people speak a South-Eastern dialect (dialects spoken in the Dodecanese and Cyprus), Cypriot Greek.
[edit] See also

cara menghindari key logger

insyallah berhasil..hehe
kalau gk ya mohon maaf...yg sebesar besarnya..hehehe


Cara 1:
jika dulur dulur mau masukin password mendingan pakai notepad
caranya klik accessories pilih notepad
masukan password facebook....lalu cut dan paste di kata sandi facebook
setelah itu jangn lupa lur di ganti tuh password yg ada di notepad
ngasal aja lalu cut lagi..... biar gk berbekas password facebook di computer nya ok...hehee...
Cara 2:
nih cara yang kedua Lurd .... cekidot
caranya klik start lalu klik all programs, klik accesories, lalu klik accesibility,
klik on-screen keyboard...... tinggal klik dah passsword nya di kata sandi yang tertera di website terkait...oke...hehehe...

Dah mungkin segitu aja lurd dari dije gusty...ok
mudah mudahan bermanfaat.....